
Freedom Activist Network's Guide To
Philosophical
Analysis
ANALYTICAL ISSUES
Analytics ·
Ethics ·
Fallacies · Other Analysis
Orgs & Websites

affirming the consequent

(if p, then q) and (q); therefore (p)

argument

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logical_argument

circular reasoning

P_{1}; therefore P_{2}; ...; therefore P_{n}; therefore
P_{1}

conclusion

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conclusion

denying the antecedent

(if p, then q) and (not p); therefore (not q)

inference

also see therefore
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inference

logic

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logic

logical falsehood


logical necessity


logical possibility

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logical_possibility

logical truth


modal


modal logic

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modal_logic

modal operator


modus ponens

(if p then q) and (p); therefore (q)
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modus_ponens

modus tollens

(if p then q) and (not q); therefore (not
p)
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modus_tollens

p


q


truth

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Truth
Analytics
Analytic Models
1. Scientific Method
2. Evolution
3. Innovation
4. Dialectics
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
1. curiosity, observation or description
2. conclusion or description
2. question, problem or controversy
3. goals, planning
4. hypothesis, explanation or cause
5. prediction
6. test, experiment, data collection
7. analysis, correlation, corroboration, evaluation
8. theory, solutions, refinement, reliability
and repeatability of hypothesis, explanation or cause

Scientific Method Links

biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/bio104/sci_meth.htm,
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_method,
scientificmethod.com/b_index.html,
biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/bio104/sci_meth.htm,
koning.ecsu.ctstateu.edu/Plants_Human/scimeth.html,
phyun5.ucr.edu/~wudka/Physics7/Notes_www/node6.html,
teacher.nsrl.rochester.edu/phy_labs/AppendixE/AppendixE.html,
dharmahaven.org/science/mythofscientificmethod.htm
1. Realities or Actualities
2. Description, Modeling
3. Goals, Problems or Questions
4. Strategy, Plan
more to come
Precondition or Cause > A
Conditional > if A
Result or Effect > B
Prophecy > then B
Prediction > if A then B > Conditional Prophecy
Symmetry in nonsequential relationship between A & B
Asymmetry in sequential relationship between A & B (entropic, temporal)
Different kinds of theories and models:
CONCEPTUAL
(ABSTRACT, TIMELESSNESS, SPACELESSNESS)
(also see Nominalism)
Mathematical:
0 (zero, number zero, integer zero)
1 (one, number one, integer one)
= (equals, equal to, is)
0 = 0 TRUE by definition of "equals" and "zero"
1 = 1 TRUE by definition of "equals" and "one"
0 = 1 FALSE by definition of "equals", "zero" and "one"
1 = 0 FALSE by definition of "equals", "zero" and "one"
=/= (not equals, not equal to, is not)
0 =/= 1 TRUE by definition of "not equal to", "zero" and "one"
1 =/= 0 TRUE by definition of "not equal to", "zero" and "one"
0 =/= 0 FALSE by definition of "not equal to" and "zero"
1 =/= 1 FALSE by definition of "not equal to" and "one"
> (greater than)
1 > 0 TRUE by definition of "greater than", "zero" and "one"
0 > 0 FALSE by definition of "greater than" and "zero"
0 > 1 FALSE by definition of "greater than", "zero" and "one"
1 > 1 FALSE by definition of "greater than" and "one"
< (less than)
0 < 1 TRUE by definition of "less than", "zero" and "one"
0 < 0 FALSE by definition of "less than" and "zero"
1 < 0 FALSE by definition of "less than", "zero" and "one"
1 < 1 FALSE by definition of "less than" and "one"
/> (not greater than)
0 /> 0 TRUE by definition of "not greater than" and "zero"
0 /> 1 TRUE by definition of "not greater than", "zero" and "one"
1 /> 1 TRUE by definition of "not greater than" and "one"
1 /> 0 FALSE by definition of "not greater than", "zero" and "one"
</ (not less than)
0 </ 0 TRUE by definition of "not less than" and "zero"
1 </ 0 FALSE by definition of "not less than", "zero" and "one"
1 </ 1 TRUE by definition of "not less than" and "one"
0 </ 1 TRUE by definition of "not less than", "zero" and "one"
+ (add, addition, plus)
0 + 0 = 0 TRUE by definition of "equals", "plus" and "zero"
0 + 1 = 1 TRUE by definition of "equals", "plus", "zero" and "one"
1 + 0 = 1 TRUE by definition of "equals", "plus", "zero" and "one"
0 + 0 = 1 FALSE by definition of "equals", "plus", "zero" and "one"
0 + 1 = 0 FALSE by definition of "equals", "plus", "zero" and "one"
1 + 0 = 0 FALSE by definition of "equals", "plus", "zero" and "one"
1 + 1 = 0 FALSE by definition of "equals", "plus", "zero" and "one"
1 + 1 = 1 FALSE by definition of "equals", "plus" and "one"
– (subtract, subtraction, minus)
0 – 0 = 0 TRUE by definition of "equals", "minus" and "zero"
1 – 0 = 1 TRUE by definition of "equals", "minus", "zero" and "one"
1 – 1 = 0 TRUE by definition of "equals", "minus", "zero" and "one"
0 – 0 = 1 FALSE by definition of "equals", "minus", "zero" and "one"
0 – 1 = 0 FALSE by definition of "equals", "minus", "zero" and "one"
0 – 1 = 1 FALSE by definition of "equals", "minus", "zero" and "one"
1 – 0 = 0 FALSE by definition of "equals", "minus", "zero" and "one"
1 – 1 = 1 FALSE by definition of "equals", "minus", "zero" and "one"
× (multiply, multiplication, times)
0 × 0 = 0 TRUE by definition of "equals", "times" and "zero"
0 × 1 = 0 TRUE by definition of "equals", "times", "zero" and "one"
1 × 0 = 0 TRUE by definition of "equals", "times", "zero" and "one"
1 × 1 = 1 TRUE by definition of "equals", "times", "zero" and "one"
0 × 0 = 1 FALSE by definition of "equals", "times", "zero" and "one"
0 × 1 = 1 FALSE by definition of "equals", "times", "zero" and "one"
1 × 0 = 1 FALSE by definition of "equals", "times", "zero" and "one"
1 × 1 = 0 FALSE by definition of "equals", "times", "zero" and "one"
÷ (divided by, division)
0 ÷ 1 = 0  TRUE by definition of "equals", "divided by", "zero" and "one"
1 ÷ 1 = 1  TRUE by definition of "equals", "divided by" and "one"
0 ÷ 0 = 0  INDETERMINATE by definition of "equals", "divided by" and "one"
0 ÷ 0 = 1  INDETERMINATE by definition of "equals", "divided by" and "one"
1 ÷ 0 = 0  FALSE by definition of "equals", "divided by" and "one"
1 ÷ 0 = 1  FALSE by definition of "equals", "divided by" and "one"
1 ÷ 1 = 0  FALSE by definition of "equals", "divided by" and "one"
i^{i} (to the power of)
0^{1} = 0 TRUE by definition of "equals", "to the power of",
"zero" and "one"
1^{0 }= 1 TRUE by definition of "equals", "to the power of",
"zero" and "one"
1^{1 }= 1 TRUE by definition of "equals", "to the power of"
and "one"
0^{0 }= 0 INDETERMINATE by definition of "equals", "to the
power of" and "zero"
0^{0 }= 1 INDETERMINATE by definition of "equals", "to the
power of" and "zero"
0^{1 }= 1 FALSE by definition of "equals", "to the power of",
"zero" and "one"
1^{0 }= 0 FALSE by definition of "equals", "to the power of",
"zero" and "one"
1^{1 }= 0 FALSE by definition of "equals", "to the power of",
"zero" and "one"
(equations with integers 0, 1)
0 + 1 = 1, 1 + 0 = 1, 1 – 1 = 0, 1 – 0 = 1, 0 × 1 = 0, 1 ×
0 = 0, 0 ÷ 1 = 0, 0^{1} = 0, 1^{0 }= 1
Integer Numbers:
0, 1, 2, 3, 4, ..., 1, 2, 3, 4, ...
 (negative, minus)
1 (negative one, minus one)
0 – 1 = 1
2 (two, number two, integer two)
1 + 1 = 2
2 – 1 = 1
2 – 0 = 2
2 – 2 = 0,
2^{0} = 1
2^{1 }= 2
1 × 1 = 1^{2} = 1
^{2 }(squared, to the power of two)
0^{2} = 0
1^{2} = 1
/¯ (square root)
/¯1 = 1
/¯0 = 0
/¯4 = 2
/¯9 = 3
2^{1/2 }= /¯2
^{n}/¯ (nth root)
^{2}/¯1 = /¯1 = 1
^{3}/¯1 = 1
^{4}/¯1 = /¯(/¯1) = 1
Prime Numbers:
2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, ...
Fractional Numbers: f = i ÷ i
1 ÷ 2 = 1/2, 1 ÷ 3 = 1/3, ...
1/2, 3/2, 5/2, 7/2, ...
1/3, 2/3, 4/3, 5/3, ...
1/4, 2/4, 3/4, 5/4. ...
1/5, 2/5, 3/5, 4/5, ...
1/6, 2/6, 3/6, 4/6, ...
...
Transcendental Numbers:
/¯2, /¯3, ^{3}/¯2, ^{3}/¯3, ...
pi (geometric number)
Imaginary Numbers:
i = /¯1
i × i = 1
Algebra:
a – a = 0
a ÷ a = 1
a × 0 = 0
0 ÷ a = 0
a × 1 = a
0^{a }= 0
1^{a} = 1
a^{0 }= 1
a^{1 }= a
a^{2 }= a × a
a^{4 }= (a^{2})^{2} = a × a × a × a
^{a}/¯1 = 1
^{2}/¯a = /¯a
^{4}/¯a = /¯(/¯a)
Function:
y = ƒ(x)
General Equation:
G(x,y,...) = 0
General Equation of Function y = ƒ(x)
G(x,y) = ƒ(x) – y = 0
G(x,y) = y – ƒ(x) = 0
Union of 2 General Equations
(G_{1}(x,y,...) = 0) U (G_{2}(x,y,...) = 0)
<=> G_{1}(x,y,...) × G_{2}(x,y,...)
= 0
Intersection of 2 General Equations
(G_{1}(x,y,...) = 0) ^ (G_{2}(x,y,...) = 0)
<=> (G_{1}(x,y,...))^{2} +
(G_{2}(x,y,...))^{2} = 0
Logic:
if a = b, then b = a
if a = b^{2}, then b = /¯a
if a = b + c, then b = a – c
if a = b + c, then c = a – b
if a = b × c, then b = a ÷ c
if a = b × c, then c = a ÷ b
if A, then B => if not B, then not A
logical operators (not, if, then, intersection, union)
Definitional:
A = A, words, symbols
PHYSICAL
Geometrical:
pi = C ÷ D, C = pi × D, D = C ÷ pi
a^{2} + b^{2 }= c^{2}, c = /¯(a^{2}
+ b^{2}), a = /¯(c^{2} – b^{2}), b=
/¯(c^{2} – a^{2})
Volumes, Areas, Lengths, Lines, Planes, Squares, Rectangles, Circles, Spheres,
Cubes, Cones, ...
Chronological:
Predictions, Cause & Effect; Simultaneity, Cooincidence, Progression;
Sequential
Dynamic: E=mc^{2}; F=g*m_{1}*m_{2}*; c (speed of
light), Conservation of Inertia, Mass & Energy
MOTIVATIONS
curiosity
need
opportunity
GOALS
adequacy
descriptions
efficiency
explanations
relationships
relevancy
problemsolving and anomalies
significance
sufficiency
understanding
UTILITY
accuracy (y=x ± insignificant error), ie adequacy, relevancy, significance,
sufficiency
simplicity (y=x is simpler than 17y=17x)
repeatability, reliability, predictability (y always = x)
efficiency (y=x is more efficient than 17y=17x)
EVOLUTION
1. Competition
2. Variation, Diversity
3. Selection
INNOVISM
1. Continuity
2. Augmentation
3. Discrimination
DIALECTICS
1. Thesis
2. Antithesis
3. Synthesis
4. Repeat 1., 2., 3., 4.
Troubleshooting, Problem Solving
Ethics

Mathematics of Ethics

utilitarian.org/maths.html
Continuity  Discontinuity  Intensity  Duration
Dimensional Scalar  Locality (0 dimensional), Linear (1 dimensional), Graphic
(2 dimensional), Volumetric (3 dimensional), ... Time? (4th dimension?) ...
(n dimensional)
Population, Population Density  Extent
Predictability  Certainty  Variability
Murphy's Law of Engineering  treat all constants as variables

Comparative Ethics


Consequential Ethics

"Utilitarianism, or consequential ethics, is concerned with the end result,
rather than the means used to achieve the results. If the benefits of performing
an action ... outweigh the costs, then consequential ethics recommends performing
the action. One thing that is often overlooked when considering this method
is that everyone effected by an action must be accounted for."
Dunivan's Boston
College Midterm

Dilemma Ethics

(Least harm of multiple choices)

Duty Ethics

"The second categorical imperative states that one should not use people
as a means to an end. ... Duty ethics is so redeeming because it brings every
situation to the same level. An action is just or unjust no matter what the
size is." Dunivan's
Boston College Midterm

Individualistic Ethics


Necessitarism

see Consequential Ethics

Relativistic Ethics


Sacrificial Ethics


Situational Ethics


Utilitarianism

also see Consequential Ethics
utilitarian.com,
utilitarianism.com/utilitarian.htm
utilitarian.org
Act Utilitarianism

utilitarianism.com/actutil.htm

Hedonistic Utilitarianism

utilitarianism.com/hedutil.htm

Ideal Utilitarianism

utilitarianism.com/idealuti.htm

Indirect Utilitarianism

utilitarianism.com/indiutil.htm

Negative Utilitarianism

"Negative utilitarianism denies ... that happiness is intrinsically valuable.
By negative utilitarianism, the only goal (the only thing which is seen as
"good") is the reduction of suffering."
utilitarianism.com/negutil.htm

Positive Utilitarianism

utilitarianism.com/posutil.htm

Preference Utilitarianism

utilitarianism.com/prefutil.htm

Restrictive Utilitarianism

utilitarianism.com/restrict.htm

Rule Utilitarianism

utilitarianism.com/ruleutil.htm

Theological Utilitarianism

utilitarianism.com/theoutil.htm

Virtue Ethics

"Virtue ethics would say there is no justification in taking this action
[of theft]. ... Aristotle suggests very specifically in Habit and Virtue
that virtue will result from the repetition of good deeds. ... in the teachings
of Martin Luther King. He states that if actions against a law or precedent
are taken, they must be openly exhibited for all to see. ... The first of
Kant's categorical imperatives states that an action is morally right if
and only if it would be right for everyone in a similar situation to do the
same thing." Dunivan's
Boston College Midterm
Fallacies
A fallacy is an argument, assertion or reasoning that is structurally flawed,
unproven, or unproveable.
Fallacious arguments do not necessarily contain false statements of fact.
Five classes of fallacies include:

1. deductive fallacies
2. syllogistic fallacies
3. inductive fallacies
4. causal fallacies
5. fallacy of equivocation

1. Deductive fallacies include:

a. fallacy of affirming the consequent
b. fallacy of assumption

1) fallacy of circular reasoning (or begging the question) P_{1
}=> P_{2 }=> P_{n }=> P_{1}

c. fallacy of denying the antecedent

2. Syllogistic fallacies include:

a. fallacy of division
b. fallacy of composition
c. fallacy of every and all

3. Inductive fallacies include:

a. fallacy of insufficient statistics
b. fallacy of biased statistics
c. fallacy of argumentum ad hominen (argument against man)

4. Causal fallacies include:

a. "post hoc" fallacy of mistaking coincidence with cause
b. fallacy of confusing cause and effect
c. fallacy of common cause

5. Fallacy of equivocation includes:

a. fallacy of using an expression 2 or more times that has a different meaning
each time its used
Other Philosophical Analysis Organizations &
Websites

Foundation for Critical Thinking

aka Critical Thinking Consortium
Box 220 Dillon Beach CA 94929, 7078789100, fax 7078789111
criticalthinking.org,
email
cct@criticalthinking.org
International Center for the Assessment of Higher Order Thinking (ICAT)

criticalthinking.org/icat.html

National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking (NCECT)

criticalthinking.org/ncect.html

Fallacy Files

fallacyfiles.org

(John) Galt's "Statistics and Lying with Numbers"

webstation19.8k.com/lying.htm

(Carl) Sagan's Baloney Detection Kit

xenu.net/archive/baloney_detection.html

Skeptic's Dictionary

skepdic.com
